Betelgeuse is a game of star conquest: the goal is to take over all of the enemy’s star systems.
To run Betelgeuse, you will also need to download ‘board.py’ and ‘utils.py’:
I will need to compare game instance that may belong to one or the other player: stars, fleets and the player himself. I’ll need a class that handles this logic which will be the parent for all three classes:
class PlayerBase(object): """Used as base for all player's stars and fleets as well as Player class itself, to allow for making equality checks between all of them. """ def __eq__(self, other) : return bool(self.char == other.char) def __ne__(self, other) : return bool(self.char != other.char) def __repr__(self) : return self.char
I will only need two types of tiles for this game: Blanks and Stars. The Blank tile does not need to do anything; the Star has a production setting which determines how many new ships are built in each cycle in run() method.
When a star is displayed, it will always show its statistics when its owner is the human player, otherwise stats may be hidden depending on the show_ships setting.
The go() method builds new ships; production volume is halved for neutral players.
class Tile(BaseTile, PlayerBase) : blank = star = False class Blank(Tile) : char = blank class Star(Blank): char = neutral_char ships = 0 def __init__(self, loc, num): super(Star, self).__init__(loc) self.num = num self.production = randint(*production_rng) board[loc] = self def __repr__(self): data = [self.char, self.num] if show_ships or self == betelgeuse.show_ships_player: data.append("%s:%s" % (self.production, self.ships)) return sjoin(data, space) def go(self): if betelgeuse.turn % star_turns == 0: self.ships += self.production if (self in players) else (self.production // 2)
The game board is very simple: it provides a random blank locations for star placement and prints out the status message (current turn).
class BetelgeuseBoard(Board): stat = "turn: %d" def random_blank(self) : return randchoice(self.locations("blank")) def status(self) : print(self.stat % betelgeuse.turn)
The star fleet is created when you send a number of ships from one star to another, whether to conquer or reinforce the destination star. The fleet ‘knows’ when to arrive by using the arrival attribute which is the game turn of arrival.
The go() method compares the fleet to the destination star and determines if it needs to attack or reinforce it; it’s crucial that this check is done on arrival instead of launch time because the star may be conquered by another fleet, yours or enemy’s, while the fleet is in transit. If that were to happen, you’d have a rather awkward situation where your fleet attacks your own forces or reinforces enemy’s garrison!
def __init__(self, char, origin, star, ships): self.char = char self.origin = origin self.star = star # target star self.ships = ships self.arrival = betelgeuse.turn + round(board.dist(origin.loc, star.loc) / 2) origin.ships -= ships def __repr__(self): eta = self.arrival - betelgeuse.turn return "(%s %s %s s:%d, a:%d)" % (self.char, self.origin.num, self.star.num, self.ships, eta) def go(self): if betelgeuse.turn >= self.arrival: if self == self.star : self.land() else : self.attack()
Ship combat is handled by having ships fight one at a time, using random function and the star_defence setting to determine the loser, until one side has no ships left.
def attack(self): """Note: need to do checks at the start of loop in case there are no ships in `star`.""" while True: if not self.ships : self.dismiss(); break if not self.star.ships : self.land(conquer=True); break loser = self.star if random() > star_defence else self loser.ships -= 1
In the land() method, ‘conquer’ argument is not used, but you can uncomment the print line to show the fleet victory message if you like.
def land(self, conquer=False): # if conquer: print(self.conquer_msg % (self.char, self.star.num)) self.star.char = self.char self.star.ships += self.ships self.dismiss() def dismiss(self): fleets.remove(self)
The Player class has a small utility method which returns all of Player’s stars and all other stars, a method handling creation of fleets and the make_random_moves() and random_move() methods used by the AI.
def __init__(self, char): self.char = char self.ai = bool(char in ai_players) def stars(self) : return [s for s in stars if s==self] def other_stars(self) : return [s for s in stars if s!=self] def send(self, *args): fleets.append( Fleet(self.char, *args) )
The logic of the AI moves is as follows: we need to go over all of player’s stars, based on a random check and the number of ships, decide whether we wish to send a fleet; if sending a fleet, we should pick the closest target and return the source star, destination and the number of ships to send.
It is important to check if there are no targets at all because the game continues even if the enemy has no stars left as long as he has at least one fleet.
def make_random_moves(self): moves = [self.random_move(star) for star in self.stars()] for move in moves: if move: self.send(*move) def random_move(self, star): def dist(star2): return board.dist(star, star2) if random() < send_chance and star.ships >= send_cutoff: targets = sorted(self.other_stars(), key=dist) if not targets: return None ships = randint(star.ships // 2, star.ships) return star, first(targets), ships
The easiest way to check if only one player is left standing is to make a set of player characters and check if its length is ‘1’.
class Betelgeuse(object): winmsg = "Player %s wins!" turn = 1 show_ships_player = None def check_end(self): pchars = set(sf.char for sf in stars+fleets if sf.char != neutral_char) if len(pchars) == 1: board.draw() print(nl, self.winmsg % first(pchars)) sys.exit()
Unlike the games in previous sections, in Betelgeuse the player can make multiple moves per turn. A move has to specify the source star, the destination and the number of ships to send; to end the turn, the player simply hits Enter on an empty prompt.
At first, the player needs to wait for his star to produce spaceships by waiting a few turns.
If the player controls star #2 and wishes to attack star #5 with 10 ships, the command would be: 2 5 10.
The run() method handles each of player’s turns, draws the Board, checks for the end of game and lets stars and fleets handle their production/movement.
def run(self): self.textinput = TextInput("%hd %hd %d", board, accept_blank=True) while True: for player in players: betelgeuse.show_ships_player = None if player.ai else player board.draw() player.make_random_moves() if player.ai else self.make_moves(player) betelgeuse.check_end() for sf in stars + fleets: sf.go() betelgeuse.turn += 1
The make_moves() methods handles all moves in a turn; get_move() returns a single move.
It’s important for _make_move() method to make sure that the source star actually belongs to the player and that it has enough ships to send the fleet, otherwise the Player who only has five ships would be able to send 500 and win the game – and we can’t allow that!
def make_moves(self, player): while True: cmd = self.get_move(player) if not cmd: break player.send(*cmd) board.draw() def get_move(self, player): while True: try: return self._get_move(player) except (IndexError, AssertionError): print(self.textinput.invalid_move) def _get_move(self, player): cmd = self.textinput.getinput() if not cmd: return src, goal, ships = cmd src, goal = stars[src], stars[goal] assert src == player and src.ships >= ships return src, goal, ships
The Player can always quit the game by entering the ‘q’ command.
By default the playing board is large and you need to maximize your terminal window to play; you can change the size, of course.
You can play human vs. human by setting ai_players empty, AI vs AI by setting it to include all AI players, and human vs AI by omitting one player. You can have more than two players; read the comments for other options:
size = 8, 6 player_chars = '⎔▣' # ai_players = '⎔' ai_players = '⎔▣' neutral_char = '⊛' blank = '.' padding = 13, 4 pause_time = 0.3 num_stars = 6 show_ships = True # show production and # of ships for all stars star_turns = 5 # star production cycle star_defence = 0.6 # star defense rating: degree of advantage for defenders, must be less than 1.0 production_rng = 8, 12 # range of star production, ships per cycle send_chance = 0.4 # chance of sending a fleet, used by AI send_cutoff = 25 # only send a fleet if have >=N, used by AI
(The alignment is slightly off in HTML shown here but works fine in the terminal.)
The star system I’m playing is on the bottom, to the right, the enemy AI is to the left of me, my system is #1 and has 10 production and 10 ships. All the other star systems are neutral:
. . . . . . . ⊛ 5 11:5 . . ⊛ 3 8:4 . . . . . . . ⊛ 6 8:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ⊛ 4 12:6 . . . ▣ 2 8:8 ⎔ 1 10:10 . . turn: 6 >