Versi is a clone of the Reversi game.
The goal of the game is to capture more tiles than your enemy. You can capture the enemy’s tiles by placing a new piece on the blank tile so that one or more of enemy pieces are enclosed on a line between your placed piece and one of your existing pieces.
To run Versi, you will also need to download ‘board.py’ and ‘utils.py’:
In order to compare Tiles and Player instances, I’ll need a class that handles this logic:
class PlayerBase(object): def __eq__(self, other): return self.char == getattr(other, "char", None) def __ne__(self, other): return not self==other
The two kinds of tiles I’ll use are blank tiles and player pieces which will have the flip() method to let the piece be captured by the enemy:
class Tile(BaseTile, PlayerBase): blank = piece = False def __repr__(self): return self.char class Blank(Tile): char = blank class Piece(Tile): def __init__(self, loc=None, char=None): super(Piece, self).__init__(loc) self.char = char if loc: board[loc] = self def flip(self): self.char = nextval(player_chars, self.char)
There are a few small methods in the Board class: valid_move() returns True if the move captures any pieces, get_valid_moves() returns all possible moves, is_corner() checks if the location is in a corner, status() prints the score of each player:
class VersiBoard(Board): scores_msg = "%s score: %3s %s score: %3s" def get_valid_moves(self, player): return [loc for loc in self.locations() if self.valid_move(player, loc)] def valid_move(self, player, loc): return bool(self.get_captured(player, loc)) def is_corner(self, loc): return loc.x in (0, self.width-1) and loc.y in (0, self.height-1) def status(self): print(self.scores_msg % (player1, player1.score(), player2, player2.score())) def middle(self): return iround(self.width/2) - 1, iround(self.height/2) - 1
The logic of the get_captured() method is as follows: starting from the newly placed tile, go in each of eight directions and check if any pieces can be captured; return the list of captures (which may be empty).
Note that dirlist2 is a list of eight major directions while dirlist is a list of four directions.
def get_captured(self, player, start_loc): """If `start_loc` is a valid move, returns a list of locations of captured pieces.""" if not self[start_loc].blank: return  getdir = self.capture_direction return flatten( [getdir(player, start_loc, dir) for dir in self.dirlist2] ) def capture_direction(self, player, start, dir): """Return the list of enemy tiles to capture in the `dir` direction from `start` location.""" groups = groupby(self.ray(start, dir)) group1, group2 = nextgroup(groups), nextgroup(groups) if group1 and group2 and (group1.key == player.enemy() and group2.key == player): return group1.group else: return 
There are a couple of tiny methods in the Player class: score() calculates the player’s score by adding up all of his tiles, enemy() returns Player’s enemy.
def __init__(self, char): self.char = char self.ai = char in ai_players def __repr__(self) : return self.char def score(self) : return sum(tile==self for tile in board) def enemy(self) : return nextval(players, self) def make_move(self, loc): for tile in board.get_captured(self, loc): tile.flip() Piece(loc, self.char)
The get_random_move() method is used by the AI and is a little tricky in the way it uses sorting: we need to sort all moves so that corner locations are preferred, because they are protected from capture, but in the absence of corner moves, we need to get the move that captures the most pieces.
In the default Python sorting, True values come first and numeric values are sorted in ascending order, so I need to negate the number of captured pieces to have the best moves sorted near the top:
def get_random_move(self): """Return location of best move.""" def by_corner_score(loc): return board.is_corner(loc), -len(board.get_captured(self, loc)) moves = board.get_valid_moves(self) shuffle(moves) return first(sorted(moves, key=by_corner_score))
The Versi class is quite simple: I’m initializing a few pieces that go in the middle of the board, checking if the game is finished and printing win/lose/draw messages.
class Versi(object): winmsg = "%s wins!" tiemsg = "The game was a tie!" def __init__(self): x, y = board.middle() Piece(Loc(x,y), player1.char) Piece(Loc(x+1, y+1), player1.char) Piece(Loc(x+1, y), player2.char) Piece(Loc(x, y+1), player2.char) def game_end(self): board.draw() winner = cmp(player1.score(), player2.score()) if not winner : print(nl, self.tiemsg) else : print(nl, self.winmsg % (player1 if winner>0 else player2)) sys.exit()
Player’s input is simply the location of the new piece; the logic of the main loop is complicated a bit by the fact that a player may have no valid moves available, in which case the other player continues to make moves until the first player can either move again or the game ends; for this reason, the transfer of turns needs to be handled explicitly.
The Player can always quit the game by entering the ‘q’ command.
def run(self): moves = board.get_valid_moves player = rndchoice(players) player = first(players) self.textinput = TextInput(board=board) while True: board.draw() move = player.get_random_move() if player.ai else self.get_move(player) player.make_move(move) # give next turn to enemy OR end game if no turns left, FALLTHRU: current player keeps the turn if moves(player.enemy()) : player = player.enemy() elif not moves(player) : versi.game_end() def get_move(self, player): while True: loc = self.textinput.getloc() if board.valid_move(player, loc) : return loc else : print(self.textinput.invalid_move)
You can play human vs. human by setting ai_players empty, AI vs AI by setting it to include all AI players, and human vs AI by omitting one player.
size = 5, 5 player_chars = '⎔▣' ai_players = '⎔▣'
I’m playing square pieces, here is the initial layout:
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . 3 . . ▣ ⎔ . . 4 . . ⎔ ▣ . . 5 . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . ▣ score: 2 ⎔ score: 2 >
This screenshot shows the board after two moves: my move to 5,3 and the AI move to 5,2; as you can see, our scores changed accordingly:
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 . . . . . . 2 . . . . ⎔ . 3 . . ▣ ⎔ ▣ . 4 . . ⎔ ▣ . . 5 . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . ▣ score: 3 ⎔ score: 3 >